Advice to Families, Teachers, Experts and Relatives of Our Hearing Impaired Children
If we take it in general terms, a general framework can be drawn about the characteristics of hearing-impaired individuals and joint action can be taken. However, some personal characteristics of each hearing impaired individual; It differs according to the type, development and degree of the disability and the biopsychosocial environmental factors it is in. Here, as outlined above, a general biopsychosocial framework will be drawn, followed by applicable recommendations.
a. Engine Developments:
Hearing impaired children go through the same developmental stages as their normal hearing peers in the 0-2 age period. However, in scientific studies and researches, delays or inadequacies in skills related to balance and body coordination may be observed in hearing-impaired children at older ages due to damage to the auditory canal and nerves. In studies with children aged 6-10, gross motor skills such as walking forward-backward on the balance board, standing on one foot, jumping, jumping, changing body position, and tying and tying shoelaces through the hole, stringing beads on a string, using both hands at the same time. It has been found that hearing impaired children are less successful in fine motor skills such as doing two different activities, cutting and holding a pencil compared to their normally developing peers. In this regard, they should receive both private and/or collective training and professional help. (Lewis, 1992; Güven and Bal, 1992; Baldemir and Bal, 1995; Darıca and Tanju, 1995; Erden and Otman, 1996; Bal and Tanju, 1997 a; Bal and Tanju, 1997b; Bal and Tanju, 1997e).
In addition, the fact that they cannot perceive verbal expressions and verbal instructions related to monitoring or performing the movements in the realization of the desired behavior by using the hearing sense causes differences in the field of motor development of large and small muscles. Parents' adopting different protective attitudes according to the age of the child may prevent hearing-impaired children from gaining experience in this field in social environments. In order to produce the fastest solution to the situation and obstacles, acceptance is needed, and getting professional psychologist-pedagogue help will increase the solidarity of families and children. (Pektaş, 1993).
b. Language developments:
Babies who have lost their hearing from birth produce natural sounds until 9 months like their peers. However, after these months, since they cannot perceive the sounds they produce and the audible stimuli coming from the environment with their hearing sense, the sound production slows down and the baby becomes increasingly silent. (Lewis, 1992).
The fact that a hearing-impaired child does not progress normally in the language development stages due to the inability of his hearing senses to fully function causes many problems. (Pektaş, 1993).
The occurrence of speech and language impairment depends on three factors: These factors are the age at which the hearing impairment occurs, the degree of hearing impairment and the type of hearing impairment.
In general, hearing impairment delays speech and causes articulation and voice disorders. However, hearing loss occurs in a period after speech is acquired and if it is mild, language and speech are almost never affected, and very mild voice and articulation disorders can be seen.
A moderate and severe hearing impairment, which occurs without learning to speak, causes significant language and speech disorders, especially with advanced voice and articulation disorders, and serious problems related to the content, structure, meaning and use of the language. In short, the age and degree at which hearing loss occurs have a significant impact on language acquisition and speech development.
When language skills are examined according to the place where the hearing impairment occurs, there is almost no effect in conductive hearing loss, while significant speech disorders can be seen in other types (Özsoy, 1971; Culatta & Tompkins, 1999).
Language development in hearing-impaired children follows the same order as in children with normal hearing. However, hearing impaired people can achieve this as a result of special education programs (Lewis, 1992).
c. Mental Development:
The scores of individuals with hearing problems on non-verbal intelligence tests are approximately at the same level as their hearing peers. However, language skills related difficulties naturally affect their academic performance. Although they have mental processes such as recognition, discrimination, matching, grouping or classification belonging to the field of mental development like their normal peers, it is not possible for them to learn something by researching the environment and develop their thinking system due to their language-related inadequacies. However, as mentioned above, in the tests that emphasize the evaluation of non-verbal language performance, matching the objects they are successful in, finding similarities, grouping, showing the differences between the pictures.
It is stated that they perform similarly to their peers with normal hearing in mental activities such as visually detecting, visually sorting a series of pictures.
When activities for using visual cues are not organized for hearing-impaired children, since their verbal communication skills are insufficient, it is not possible for them to learn something by researching the environment, and develop their thinking systems and mental processes.
Literacy and mathematics skills may be lower, and academic failure may be observed.
Since language skills are intertwined with mental development skills, the degree of hearing impairment affects mental development (Ergenç, 1995; Darıca et al., 1997; Culatta & Tompkins, 1999).
D. Social Developments:
Social and personal adaptability skills depend on communication skills and interactions with family members and others around them, just like their normal hearing peers.
Hearing-impaired children of hearing-impaired families have a higher level of social maturity, adapting to hearing-impaired, and controlling their behavior compared to hearing-impaired children of normally hearing families. This is related to the early use of sign communication (Culatta & Tompkins, 1999).
Failure to use a common communication approach and model between the deaf child and the hearing parent will cause difficulties in understanding the clue and a certain situation given by the other person in communication. As a result of the inability to use a common communication approach and model in the hearing mother-deaf child couple, two dominant features (commanding and controlling) are evident in the hearing mother. It has been suggested that these two characteristics of the mother cause the child's immaturity in social relations (Hadadian & Rose, 1991; Caissie & Çöle, 1993).
Families of hearing-impaired individuals are seen as overprotective, less permissive, less encouraging, and less approving than families of children with normal hearing (Temel et al., 1998).
In these individuals, problems arising from hearing impairment are not a major obstacle on their own. The main problem is that this causes a lack of communication. Researchers attribute the child's ability to communicate to the fact that the mother-child relationship gives the child the necessary positive emotions (Temel et al., 1998).
The social competence of the individual does not change compared to normal hearing or hearing impairment. Participation in school, classroom and social activities and being in emotional trust with hearing friends are important in the perception of social trust (Leigh & Stinson, 1991).
According to Stinson, hearing-impaired individuals have lower self-esteem than those with normal hearing and perceive themselves as inadequate in controlling events. The important factors in this regard are the type of family, the success in using the same language with their peers and finding friends in the living environment. Forcing all these relationships supports the healthy development of self and identity (Act. Leigh & Stinson, 1991).
Hearing impaired individuals do not have friends outside of school. The reason for this is that they have difficulty in communicating due to their disability and that hearing people do not understand themselves, and they prefer people with disabilities as friends (Temel et al., 1998).
1. In the education of the hearing-impaired, educators should inform and guide the family about their work with children.
2. Collaboration of families and teachers is one of the most important steps to be taken in the education of these children.
3. Education continues not only in school but also in all areas of life. Education is very important in the home environment, where the child consumes a large part of his time, and the family has many important duties.
4. Hearing impaired individuals hear sound with the help of hearing aids. This is how children develop their listening skills. As a result of listening skills, the child will begin to make sounds. The family should definitely use the device regularly; Otherwise, the sound-making behavior will decrease.
5. There may be children who do not want to wear devices. The family should understand that the child does not have a chance without a hearing aid, and the device should be worn constantly no matter what.
6. Do not include signs in conversations. If you don't, it will prefer signs over speech. Also, do not treat the hearing impaired child as privileged and different from their siblings.
7. The family should definitely do activities and play games with the child at home. Create game environments, talk to him calmly and clearly, adjusting your tone very well, and guide him to talk to you. While doing this, stay away from a pretentious or tearful way of speaking. Maintain your mood in a more cold-blooded way.
8. It is necessary to be in constant interaction with the child. For example, mother pine He should give the language of his work to the child, instead of saying sit down, I have a job even while cooking.
Do not use words made up by the child. Try to teach the truth. If it says aymut instead of pear, correct it by saying yes pear.
9. Do exercises in the form of questions and answers, this will help your child gain turn-taking behavior. When the child cannot answer the question, do not give the answer immediately. Give the child time to respond.
10. Pay attention to the sounds your child makes. These sounds are efforts to communicate and speak. Answer the sounds it makes. Speak with your child in sentences, avoid single-word expressions.
11. In the early stages of the child's language development, single-word speech causes the development of a non-uniform, non-melody speech. Emphasize the word you want to teach in the sentence. What a beautiful cat. Did you see the cat? as...
12. Experiences are very important. Give your child various experiences and teach them new words, have them draw them in the notebook, you can take them to the zoo.
13. Encourage your child to communicate with friends and adults who will be role models through his speech. Children are more eager to communicate with friends and sympathetic-empathetic adults.
14. Hearing impairment affects mental, social and spiritual development negatively. Therefore, never compare your child with hearing children. Although our route and goal is to behave in accordance with his age, it is enough for the child to pass him/herself consistently.
15. Self-confidence is very important. Do everything you can to increase your child's self-confidence. Deliver positive messages with your tone of voice and touch. Be patient with your child.
16. Trust your child and believe that your child can speak.
17. If necessary, an expert for yourself and your child; Do not hesitate to seek professional help from experts such as psychologists, pedagogues, speech and language therapists, family counselors, psychiatrists, neurologists, special educators, and child development specialists.
18. Continue to contribute to both yourself and our children by taking part in or supporting non-governmental organizations and associations that support families with the same disability or problem. Those who have similar problems in the same world can understand each other much faster and give help.
To meet in better days and, if necessary, to lend a helping hand to each other, especially in difficult days, stay goodbye and friendly...
If you want to contact me about any subject, you can call or write from the Mylife Psychological Counseling Center Communication Line on +90544 724 3650.